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始作俑者 Human Figurines as Funerary Objects

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年11月30日 09:27 网络孔子学院

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,是中国 古代坟墓中用作陪葬 的偶人。它的出现可以追溯到公元 前1600年-前1000年左右的 时期 。在这之前,王或贵族 死后普遍以活人殉葬,一次往往要葬入成百甚至上千奴隶。随着生产的发展 ,人的劳动力价值逐渐被看重,才开始用模拟的人形——俑来代替活人殉葬。根据古文献 记载 ,最早的俑是用茅草束扎成人的样子作为象征 ,后来越做越精细,有用陶土烧塑的,也有用木料削制的。考古发掘 表明, 以前的俑形体都很小,多为十几厘米,甚至仅几厘米高,但都愈来愈向真人的形貌发展,不但身体造型 相似,而且还用墨笔描绘出眉眼、须发等细部,彩绘出衣裙甲胄,甚至穿裹以丝织衣物。


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Use of human figurines as funerary objects dates back to the Shang-Zhou period, to a period from 1600 BC to 1000 BC, to be exact. Before that period, hundreds and even more than 1,000 slaves were buried alive together with a dead nobleman, supposedly to serve their master in the nether world. The practice eventually ceased to exist as human labor became more and more productive and, as a result, human figurines were invented for use as funerary objects. Things of straw that look like scarecrows were used at first, followed by pottery and wooden figurines. Human figurines used as funerary objects before the Qin Dynasty were quite small, just a few to a dozen centimeters tall. Along with improvement in workmanship, however, they became more and more real in style, not only in human shape but also with details such as the hair, eyes and eyebrows painted. Some figurines "wear" armor suits painted in color, and we have also found figurines with silk clothes on. We are unable to know who invented the practice of using human figurines as funerary objects, but we do know that the practice originated from the late period of China's slavery society and thrived during the Qin and Han dynasties.

“始作俑者,其无后乎!”这是中国儒家 文化 创始人孔子 发出的感慨,意思是第一个制作俑用来陪葬的人,应该绝子灭孙没有后代!孔子为什么如此痛恨 俑呢?有人解释说,这是因为虽没用活人陪葬,但所做俑跟真人非常相像,人们心理上仍存有以活人陪葬的念头,所以也应该遭到谴责 。究竟谁是始作俑者早已无从可考,我们所能确定的是,陪葬用的俑,在奴隶社会后期悄然兴起,并在秦汉发展到高峰。
The Chinese sage Confucius was strongly against use of human figurines as funerary objects. Said he, "If, only the originator of funerary figurines die without a son!" According to one assumption, even though the practice of burying people alive had ceased to exist, those figurines looked so real that they may prompt a desire to restore it and for that, the sage condemned its originator.

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