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青铜器铭文 Inscriptions on Bronze Ware

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年10月13日 07:10 网络孔子学院

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除了各种纹样外,青铜器 上还常常刻铸有文字 。早期青铜器铭文 一般很少,只有几个字,内容多是器物 的主人及父辈名,表示器物的归属。到 西周 时,铭文开始增多,达几十字上百字,多的甚至近500字,简直是将一篇文章刻了上去。这些铭文中不但有明确的纪年,而且大段记事,其中大多是记录某次占卜 或征战过程 。它们无疑是研究当时史实的重要文献 资料 。如1976年出土 于陕西临潼的利簋,器腹内底铸铭文4行共32字,大意是周武王征伐商纣王,在甲子之日的早晨攻占商国,在辛未这一天赏赐青铜给有司利,利又用这些青铜铸了宝器簋。对照古文献,《尚书·牧誓》、《史记·周本纪》等均记载 武王征商的决战之日确为“甲子朝”,与利簋铭文记述相符。


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Bronze utensils of the Shang period also have inscriptions on them. Inscriptions on the earliest bronze utensils are limited in number, in most cases just a few, denoting the name of the owner or the most senior elder of his family. Much more inscriptions are found on bronze utensils produced during the period spanning the late Shang and early Zhou, whose numbers range from dozens to hundreds - on one of them, nearly 500, virtually the complete text of an article. These inscriptions are in fact invaluable historical records on what happened in what year, mostly on wars and divinations. One best example is a gui (a food container) unearthed in 1976 from a site in Lintong, Shaanxi Province, which has 32 scripts in four lines on the bottom. The text tells the exact date when armies under the command of King Wu of Zhou seized the capital of the Shang under King Zhou. For his role in the battle, King Wu gave the owner of the basin, a nobleman named Li, a quantity of bronze, with which Li had the basin made. The date of the event given in the text is exactly the date in classics of Chinese history including the Book of Documents and the Historical Records.

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