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青铜礼器 Bronze Sacrificial Utensils

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年09月28日 07:07 网络孔子学院

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(约前16-前11世纪),鼎成为青铜礼器 中最具代表性的重器。 之后铸造 的一些巨大的青铜鼎,在20世纪多有出土 ,其中形体最大、最重的一件是司母戊方鼎,现藏于中国 国家博物馆 。它高133厘米,重875公斤,鼎体方形,附有两个直立的巨耳,体下有四只粗壮的圆柱形足。鼎体腹边饰兽面 和夔纹,中间平素光泽,显得浑厚庄重。直立的耳廓上的纹饰,是猛虎噬咬着瞪目张口的人头,狰狞而神秘 。鼎的腹壁内有铭文“司母戊”三字,据考证 ,它可能是商王文丁为祭祀母戊而铸造的,“母戊”是他母亲的庙号(帝王为他死后的亲属颁赐的一种尊称)。


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Bronze tripods and quadripods were the largest and also the most important sacrificial utensils of the Shang Dynasty (1600 BC - 1046 BC). Many were excavated in the 20th century. Of these, the largest and heaviest, 133 centimeters tall and weighing 875 kilograms, is in the collection of the National Museum of China, Beijing. Three characters, reading Si Mu Wu, are found on the inner wall of the tripod, "Mu Wu" being the title of honor conferred on King Wending' s mother posthumously, suggesting that the utensil was produced possibly in honor of the dead woman. The quadripod, square in shape, has two upright ears and its four legs are stout and strong. Animal face and dragon designs are found on the belly of the vessel, and the parts above and below the designs are polished. Each ear features the head of a tiger with a human head in the wide open mouth - a gruesome, mysterious picture, indeed.

此外,近年来在河南等地也不断发掘 出商代的青铜方鼎,其中最引人注目 的两件出土于郑州商城西墙外的杜岭,形体比司母戊鼎小,大的一件高100厘米,重86.4公斤,但是铸成的年代 比司母戊鼎早得多。鼎体呈方斗形,腹深而足矮,表现 出比司母戊鼎的长方形鼎体更早的时代 特色 。它们同样是商王室用于祭祀 活动的礼器。
Several square-shaped quadripods have been unearthed in recent years in Henan and other provinces. Two of these, though smaller than the quadripod dedicated to Si Mu Shu, are identified as much older. The larger quadripod is 100 centimeters tall and 86.4 kilograms in weight.

除青铜鼎之外,其他的很多青铜容器 也是商代重要的礼器,其中最具代表性的是皇室和贵族 宴乐、祭祀等重大礼仪活动中用于盛放牺牲、食物和酒水的容器。它们大多工艺 精美,装饰 多样,反映了商王室贵族对于祭祀礼仪的极端重视,可视为青铜艺术的成熟作品
Both belonged to the supreme rulers of the Shang, for use as sacrificial vessels. Relative to the quadripod dedicated to Si Mu Shu, they are deep and have short legs.Bronze utensils other than tripods and quadripods were also indispensable at sacrificial ceremonies and feasting. These include containers for sacrificial animals, food, water and wine, all featuring excellent workmanship and exquisite decorative designs that testify to the importance attached by Shang rulers to those events.

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