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仿动物造型的青铜器 Animal-shaped Bronze Vessels

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年09月01日 07:16 网络孔子学院

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青铜器 中,有一些采用虚构 动物 造型 的器物,呈现 出富于幻想 的奇异形象


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Some bronze vessels of the Shang period take the shape of animals that look strange enough to capture the viewer' s fancy.

这类超自然的神奇造型,在其后的西周 仍然流行,陕西长安张家坡井叔墓出土 的青铜牺尊是突出的代表 。兽体上装饰 着一 、一凤和两条龙,头有些像牛,但生着龙角和竖立的耳朵,身有双翼,四足有蹄。全器布满兽面 、龙纹、夔纹、雷纹等图案 ,繁缛华丽。
Patterns supernatural in artistic style continued into the West Zhou period. A bronze wine vessel unearthed from a tomb of that period at Zhang Jiapo of Chang'an in Shaanxi Province takes the shape of an animal carrying a tiger, with a phoenix and two dragons on its back. The animal's head looks like the head of a bull but with the horns of a dragon and its ears standing erect. Moreover, the animal has hoofs and a pair of wings. The body is decorated with exquisite designs of animal faces, dragons, dragons, kui (single-leg animal that looks like a dragon) and lightning.

在这类作品 中,还出现了人的艺术 造型。有的人兽合体,如头生龙角的人面青铜盉。有的人兽共存,最著名 的是所谓虎食人青铜卣:一只蹲坐着的虎,张着大嘴,前爪抓抱着一个人;人面对着虎,双手搂着虎胸,一双赤足蹬踏在虎的后爪上,偏着头并伸入虎嘴之中。从人虎互抱的形态,以及人无恐惧挣扎之状来看,似乎并不是表达猛虎食人的意思,而是人虎间和谐共处。有人认为那个人是具有通天法力的巫师 ,老虎是其通天的动物助手 。卣是祭祀时盛酒的器具,因为巫师作法时要痛饮美酒,以提高精神状态,因此这件神秘莫测的青铜卣,可能真是巫师通天的法器
There are also human figures on bronze vessels. One bronze he (three-legged vessel used to warm cold wine with hot water in it) features a human face with a pair of dragon horns. The most artistically outstanding is a wine pot with a small mouth and a big belly, which is known to archeologists as you. It features a human figure embracing a tiger, his bare feet on the hind paws of the tiger, and his head in the tiger' s mouth. The man' s face bears no expression of pain or horror, suggesting that the man and the tiger are friends. Some archeologists think that the man could be a wizard and the tiger, his assistant. The wine pot could be a magic instrument by means of which the wizard was supposedly able to communicate with the supernatural world. In ancient times, wizards often exercised witchcraft under the influence of alcohol.

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