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青铜器装饰纹样:狰狞的兽面纹 Ferocious-looking Animal Designs on Bronze Ware

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年08月27日 07:40 网络孔子学院

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    青铜礼器上的装饰 最突出的主题 是兽面纹。其特征 是一个正面的兽头,以竖直的鼻梁作为中线,形成对称的构图,左右分布双角、双眉和双目,鼻梁下是翻卷的鼻头和张开的巨口。有的兽头两侧伸出利爪,因其形体细小,更反衬出兽面之大与狰狞可怖。也有些兽面两侧均有身躯、腿和足爪,以及尾巴,似乎是双身共有一个头,实际上是古人正在描绘 正面的兽形时难于处理,就将身躯剖开,两边各绘出半片,合在一起来看,就呈现 出完整的兽体。


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The earliest bronze artifacts found so far in China - a small knife and fragments of a small knife excavated from Gansu Province, northwest China - were produced during the period from 3,000 years BC to 2,300 years BC. Bits of copper articles were found from ruins of the Yangshao culture at Jiangzhai, Lintong City of Shaanxi Province, which are identified as dating back to around 4,700 years BC. Archeological findings suggest that the Chinese were producing bronze ware during the period of Longshan culture that came later, when stone tools were still used. Bronze, the alloy of copper and tin or lead, has a lower melting point than copper but it is harder. Bronze with a 10% copper content is 4.7 times as hard as copper. Melted bronze alloy expands a little in the course of cooling. For all this, bronze castings have fewer gas holes in them, suggesting that the alloy is good for casting.

时的金石图籍中,认定兽面纹就是传说中所谓的“饕餮”,是“有首无身”、贪得无厌的食人怪物。但称兽面纹为饕餮,并不十分贴切,因为这种纹饰并非只有头无身,特别是较早的作品 ,其身躯甚为明显,同时它的双角常似羊角或牛角。总之,图案 表现 的应是自然界找不到的怪兽,它那狰狞的面容,常常给人以沉重、压抑、神秘 和恐怖的感觉。以之为青铜器 的主题纹样,使礼器增添了神秘可畏的色彩,体现了礼器拥有者的森严权威。这可能正是商王贵族所希望达到的艺术 效果,也是兽面纹日趋流行的原因。除了兽面纹以外,夔纹、龙纹、蝉纹、鸟纹、蚕纹、龟纹等也是商代青铜器常用的纹饰。
Production of bronze ware was a complicated process. Before casting, there was the need to make a die in the shape of the object to be produced. The earliest bronze ware were produced mostly with a single mold and occasionally with two - the upper and the lower - for production of double-faced objects. More than two molds would be needed, including even internal molds, when things more complicated in structure were to be produced. Decorative designs and inscriptions were first carved on the molds, with which casting dies were made. Several dies had to be used to produce a bronze vessel with, indicating that the bronze casting technology was quite sophisticated.

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