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青铜工艺 Bronze Technology

http://www.chinesecio.com 2010年08月11日 07:01 网络孔子学院

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中国已知最早的青铜器 ,是发现 于甘肃省东乡县林家的小铜刀和永登县蒋家坪的残断小铜刀,制造 时间在公元 前3000年至前2300年之间。至于黄铜残片的发现,则在陕西临潼姜寨的仰韶文化 遗址 中,时间约为公元前4700年左右。在更迟一些的龙山文化 时期,中国进入铜石并用时代 ,此时人们已能制作青铜的容器 。因为青铜是铜(红铜)与锡或铅的合金,与红铜相比,熔点有所降低,而硬度增强。含锡10%的青铜,硬度为红铜的4.7倍。同时,熔化的青铜在冷凝时体积略有增大,所以青铜铸件填充性好,气孔少,具有较高的铸造性能。


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The earliest bronze artifacts found so far in China - a small knife and fragments of a small knife excavated from Gansu Province, northwest China - were produced during the period from 3,000 years BC to 2,300 years BC. Bits of copper articles were found from ruins of the Yangshao culture at Jiangzhai, Lintong City of Shaanxi Province, which are identified as dating back to around 4,700 years BC. Archeological findings suggest that the Chinese were producing bronze ware during the period of Longshan culture that came later, when stone tools were still used. Bronze, the alloy of copper and tin or lead, has a lower melting point than copper but it is harder. Bronze with a 10% copper content is 4.7 times as hard as copper. Melted bronze alloy expands a little in the course of cooling. For all this, bronze castings have fewer gas holes in them, suggesting that the alloy is good for casting.

制作青铜器,要经过采矿、冶炼、浇铸、修整等几个阶段 。浇铸之前,要先依器物的形态轮廓制成铸型——范(模具)。青铜器早期采用简单的单范,较复杂的则用上下两块范合范浇铸,可铸出扁体的双面造型的物品。如果要制作有容积的立体造型,就必须使用多块范,而且还要装有内模,这需要掌握更精湛的技艺。青铜器的 饰先刻在范母上,然后翻成泥范,再合范铸器。由上述青铜器铸造工艺 技术 的发展演变来看,青铜工艺经历了由单范到合范,再发展为多块合范的过程 。制作青铜容器必须掌握多块合范的工艺,所以青铜容器的出现,标志着青铜冶铸技术步入了成熟阶段。
Production of bronze ware was a complicated process. Before casting, there was the need to make a die in the shape of the object to be produced. The earliest bronze ware were produced mostly with a single mold and occasionally with two - the upper and the lower - for production of double-faced objects. More than two molds would be needed, including even internal molds, when things more complicated in structure were to be produced. Decorative designs and inscriptions were first carved on the molds, with which casting dies were made. Several dies had to be used to produce a bronze vessel with, indicating that the bronze casting technology was quite sophisticated.

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